Cinco de Mayo is a Mexican holiday which celebrates the victory over French forces on May 5, 1862 at the Battle of Puebla. It is often mistakenly thought to be Mexico’s Independence Day, which is actually September 16. More of an emotional victory than a military one, to Mexicans the Battle of Puebla represents Mexican resolve and bravery in the face of an overwhelming foe.
The Reform War
The Battle of Puebla was not an isolated incident: there is a long and complicated history that led up to it. In 1857, the “Reform War” broke out in Mexico. It was a civil war and it pitted Liberals (who believed in separation of church and state and freedom of religion) against the Conservatives (who favored a tight bond between the Roman Catholic Church and the Mexican State). This brutal, bloody war left the nation in shambles and bankrupt. When the war was over in 1861, Mexican President Benito Juarez suspended all payment of foreign debt: Mexico simply did not have any money.
This angered Great Britain, Spain and France, countries which were owed a great deal of money. The three nations agreed to work together to force Mexico to pay. The United States, which had considered Latin America its “backyard” since the Monroe Doctrine (1823), was going through a Civil War of its own and in no position to do anything about European intervention in Mexico.
In December 1861 armed forces of the three nations arrived off the coast of Veracruz and landed a month later, in January 1862. Desperate last-minute diplomatic efforts by the Juarez administration persuaded Britain and Spain that a war that would further devastate the Mexican economy was in no one’s interest, and Spanish and British forces left with promise of future payment. France, however, was unconvinced and French forces remained on Mexican soil.
French March on Mexico City
French forces captured the city of Campeche on February 27 and reinforcements from France arrived soon after. By early March, France’s modern military machine had an efficient army in place, poised to capture Mexico City. Under the command of the Count of Lorencez, a veteran of the Crimean War, the French Army set out for Mexico City. When they reached Orizaba, they held up for a while, as many of their troops had become ill. Meanwhile, an army of Mexican regulars under the command of 33 year-old Ignacio Zaragoza marched to meet him. The Mexican Army was about 4,500 men strong: the French numbered approximately 6,000 and were much better armed and equipped than the Mexicans. The Mexicans occupied the city of Puebla and its two forts, Loreto and Guadalupe.
On the morning of May 5, Lorencez moved to attack. He believed that Puebla would fall easily: his incorrect information suggested that the garrison was much smaller than it really was and that the people of Puebla would surrender easily rather than risk much damage to their city. He decided on a direct assault, ordering his men to concentrate on the strongest part of the defense: Guadalupe fortress, which stood on a hill overlooking the city. He believed that once his men had taken the fort and had a clear line to the city, the people of Puebla would be demoralized and would surrender quickly. Attacking the fortress directly would prove a major mistake.
Lorencez moved his artillery into position and by noon had begun shelling Mexican defensive positions. He ordered his infantry to attack three times: each time they were repulsed by the Mexicans. The Mexicans were almost overrun by these assaults, but bravely held their lines and defended the forts. By the third attack, the French artillery was running out of shells and therefore the final assault was unsupported by artillery.