On June 23, 1814, Carrera led a coup that put him back in command of Chile. Some members of the government fled to the city of Talca, where they begged O'Higgins to restore the constitutional government. O'Higgins obliged, and met Luís Carrera on the field at the Battle of Tres Acequias on August 24, 1814. O'Higgins was defeated and driven off. It appeared that more warring was imminent, but the rebels once again had to face a common enemy: thousands of new royalist troops sent from Peru under the command of Brigadier General Mariano Osorio. Because of his loss at the battle of Tres Acequias, O'Higgins agreed to a position subordinate to that of José Miguel Carrera when their armies were united.
After O'Higgins failed to stop the Spanish at the city of Rancagua (in large part because Carrera called off reinforcements), the decision was made by patriot leaders to abandon Santiago and head into exile in Argentina. O'Higgins and Carrera met again there: prestigious Argentine General José de San Martín supported O'Higgins over Carrera. When Luís Carrera killed O'Higgins' mentor Juan Mackenna in a duel, O'Higgins turned forever on the Carrera clan, his patience with them exhausted. Carrera went to the USA to seek ships and mercenaries.
Return to Argentina
In early 1817, O'Higgins was working with San Martín to secure the liberation of Chile. Carrera returned with a warship that he had managed to acquire in the USA, along with some volunteers. When he heard of the plan to liberate Chile, he asked to be included, but O'Higgins refused. Javiera Carrera, José Miguel's sister, came up with a plot to liberate Chile and get rid of O'Higgins: brothers Juan José and Luís would sneak back into Chile in disguise, infiltrate the liberating army, arrest O'Higgins and San Martín, and then lead the liberation of Chile themselves. José Manuel did not approve the plan, which ended in disaster when his brothers were arrested and sent to Mendoza, where they were executed on April 8, 1818.
Carrera and the Chilean Legion
José Miguel went mad with rage at the execution of his brothers. Seeking to raise his own army of liberation, he collected some 600 Chilean refugees and formed "the Chilean Legion" and headed to Patagonia. There, the legion rampaged through Argentine towns, sacking and plundering them in the name of gathering resources and recruits for a return to Chile. At the time, there was no central authority in Argentina, and the nation was ruled by a number of warlords similar to Carrera.
Imprisonment and Death
Carrera was eventually defeated and captured by the Argentine Governor of Cuyo. He was sent in chains to Mendoza, the same city where his brothers had been executed. On September 4, 1821, he too was executed there. His final words were "I die for the liberty of America." He was so despised by the Argentines that his body was quartered and put on show in iron cages. O'Higgins personally sent a letter to the Governor of Cuyo, thanking him for putting down Carrera.
Legacy of José Miguel Carrera
José Miguel Carrera is considered by Chileans to be one of the founding fathers of their nation, a great revolutionary hero who helped Bernardo O'Higgins win independence from Spain. His name is a bit besmirched due to his constant bickering with O'Higgins, considered by Chileans to be the greatest leader of the independence era.
This somewhat qualified reverence on the part of modern Chileans seems a fair judgment of his legacy. Carrera was a towering figure in Chilean independence military and politics from 1812 to 1814, and he did much to secure Chile's independence. This good must be weighed against his errors and shortcomings, which were considerable.
On the positive side, Carrera stepped into an indecisive and fractured independence movement upon his return to Chile in late 1811. He took command, providing leadership when the young republic most needed it. The son of a wealthy family who had served in the Peninsular War, he commanded respect among the military and the wealthy Creole landowner class. The support of both of these elements of society was key to maintaining the revolution.
During his limited reign as dictator, Chile adopted its first constitution, established its own media and founded a national university. The first Chilean flag was adopted during this time. Slaves were freed, and the aristocracy was abolished.
Carrera made many mistakes as well. He and his brothers could be very treacherous, and they used devious schemes to help them remain in power: at the Battle of Rancagua, Carrera refused to send reinforcements to O'Higgins (and his own brother Juan José, fighting alongside O'Higgins) partly in order to make O'Higgins lose and look incompetent. O'Higgins later got word that the brothers planned to assassinate him if he had won the battle.
Carrera was not nearly as skilled a general as he thought he was. His disastrous mismanagement of the Siege of Chillán led to the loss of a great portion of the rebel army when it was most needed, and his decision to recall the troops under the command of his brother Luís from the battle of Rancagua led to a disaster of epic proportions. After the patriots fled to Argentina, his constant bickering with San Martín, O'Higgins and others failed to allow the creation of a unified, coherent liberation force: only when he went to the USA in search of aid was such a force allowed to form in his absence.
Even today, Chileans cannot quite agree on his legacy. Many Chilean historians believe that Carrera deserves more credit for Chilean liberation than O'Higgins and the topic is openly debated in certain circles. The Carrera family has remained prominent in Chile. General Carrera Lake is named after him.
Concha Cruz, Alejandor and Maltés Cortés, Julio. Historia de Chile Santiago: Bibliográfica Internacional, 2008.
Harvey, Robert. Liberators: Latin America's Struggle for Independence Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 2000.
Lynch, John. The Spanish American Revolutions 1808-1826 New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1986.
Scheina, Robert L. Latin America's Wars, Volume 1: The Age of the Caudillo 1791-1899 Washington, D.C.: Brassey's Inc., 2003.