Spain’s American Colonies and the Encomienda System:
In the 1500’s, Spain systematically conquered parts of North, Central and South America as well as the Caribbean. With native governments such as the efficient Inca Empire in ruins, the Spanish conquistadors needed to find a way to rule their new subjects. The encomienda system was put in place in several areas, most importantly in Peru. Under the encomienda system, prominent Spaniards were entrusted with native communities. In exchange for native labor and tribute, the Spanish lord would provide protection and education. In reality, however, the encomienda system was thinly-masked slavery and led to some of the worst horrors of the colonial era.
The Encomienda System:
The word encomienda comes from the Spanish word encomendar, "to entrust." The encomienda system had been used in feudal Spain during the reconquest and had survived in some form ever since. In the Americas, the first encomiendas were handed out by Christopher Columbus
in the Caribbean. Spanish conquistadors, settlers, priests or colonial officials were given a repartimiento, or grant of land. These lands were often quite vast. The land included any native cities, towns, communities or families that lived there. The natives were supposed to provide tribute, in the form of gold or silver, crops and foodstuffs, animals such as pigs or llamas or anything else the land produced. The natives could also be made to work for a certain amount of time, say on a sugarcane plantation or in a mine. In return, the owner, or encomendero, was responsible for the well-being of his subjects and was to see to it that they were converted and educated about Christianity.
A Troublesome System:
The Spanish crown reluctantly approved the granting of encomiendas because it needed to reward the conquistadors and establish a system of governance in the newly-conquered territories, and the encomiendas were a quick-fix that killed both birds with one stone. The system essentially made landed nobility out of men whose only skills were murder, mayhem and torture: the kings hesitated to set up a New World oligarchy which could later prove troublesome. It also swiftly led to abuses: encomenderos made unreasonable demands of the natives who lived on their lands, working them excessively or demanding tribute of crops that could not be grown on the land. These problems appeared quickly. The first New World haciendas, granted in the Caribbean, often had only 50-100 natives and even on such a small scale it wasn’t long before the encomenderos had virtually enslaved their subjects.
Encomiendas in Peru:
In Peru, where encomiendas were granted on the ruins of the rich and mighty Inca Empire, the abuses soon reached epic proportions. The encomenderos there showed an inhuman indifference to the suffering of the families on their encomiendas. They did not change the quotas even when crops failed or disasters struck: many natives were forced to choose between fulfilling quotas and starving to death or failing to meet quotas and facing the often-lethal punishment of the overseers. Men and women were forced to work in mines for weeks at a time, often by candle-light in deep shafts. The mercury mines were particularly lethal. During the first years of the colonial era, Peruvian natives died by the hundreds of thousands.
Administration of the Encomiendas:
The owners of the encomiendas were not supposed to ever visit the encomienda lands: this was supposed to cut down on abuses. The natives instead brought the tribute to wherever the owner happened to be, generally in the larger cities. The natives were often forced to walk for days with heavy loads to be delivered to their encomendero. The lands were run by cruel overseers and native chieftains who often demanded extra tribute themselves, making the lives of the natives even more miserable. Priests were supposed to live on the encomienda lands, instructing the natives in Catholicism, and often these men became defenders of the people they taught, but just as often they committed abuses of their own, living with native women or demanding tribute of their own.
While the conquistadors were wringing every last speck of gold from their miserable subjects, the ghastly reports of abuses piled up in Spain. The Spanish crown was in a tough spot: the "royal fifth," or 20% tax on conquests and mining in the New World, was fueling the expansion of the Spanish Empire. On the other hand, the crown had made it quite clear that the Indians were not slaves but Spanish subjects with certain rights, which were being flagrantly, systematically and horrifically violated. Reformers such as Bartolomé de las Casas
were predicting everything from the complete depopulation of the Americas to the eternal damnation of everyone involved in the whole sordid enterprise. In 1542, Charles V of Spain finally listened to them and passed the so-called "New Laws."
The New Laws:
The New Laws
were a series of royal ordinances designed to halt the abuses of the encomienda system, particularly in Peru. Natives were to have their rights as citizens of Spain and could not be forced to work if they did not want to. Reasonable tribute could be collected, but any additional work was to be paid for. Existing encomiendas would pass to the crown upon the death of the encomendero, and no new encomiendas were to be granted. Furthermore, anyone who abused natives or who had participated in the conquistador civil wars could lose their encomiendas. The king approved the laws and sent a Viceroy, Blasco Núñez Vela, to Lima with clear orders to enforce them.
The colonial elite were livid with rage when the provisions of the New Laws became known. The encomenderos had lobbied for years for the encomiendas to be made permanent and passable from one generation to another, something the King had always resisted. The New Laws removed all hope of perpetuity being granted. In Peru, most of the settlers had taken part in the conquistador civil wars
and could therefore lose their encomiendas immediately. The settlers rallied around Gonzalo Pizarro
, one of the leaders of the original conquest of the Inca Empire and brother of Francisco Pizarro. Pizarro defeated Viceroy Núñez, who was killed in battle, and basically ruled Peru for two years before another royalist army defeated him; Pizarro was captured and executed. A few years later, a second rebellion under Francisco Hernández Girón took place and was also put down.
End of the Encomienda System:
The King of Spain almost lost Peru during these conquistador uprisings. Gonzalo Pizarro's supporters had urged him to declare himself King of Peru, but he refused: had he done so, Peru might have successfully split from Spain 300 years early. Charles V felt it prudent to suspend or repeal the most hated aspects of the New Laws. The Spanish crown still steadfastly refused to grant encomiendas in perpetuity, however, so slowly these lands reverted to the crown.
Some of the encomenderos managed to secure title-deeds to certain lands: unlike the encomiendas, these could be passed down from one generation to the next. Those families that held land would eventually become the native oligarchy.
Once the encomiendas reverted to the crown, they were overseen by corregidores, royal agents who administered crown holdings. These men proved to be every bit as bad as the encomenderos had been: corregidores were appointed for relatively brief periods, so they tended to squeeze as much as they could out of a particular holding while they could. In other words, although the encomiendas were phased out eventually by the crown, the lot of the native workers did not improve.
The encomienda system was one of the many horrors inflicted on the native people of the New World during the conquest and colonial eras. It was essentially slavery, given but a thin (and illusory) veneer of respectability for the Catholic education that it implied. It legally allowed the Spaniards to work the natives literally to death in the fields and mines. It seems counter-productive to kill off your own workers, but the Spanish conquistadors in question were only interested in getting as rich as they could as quickly as they could: this greed led directly to hundreds of thousands of deaths in the native population.
To the conquistadors and settlers, the encomiendas were nothing less than their fair and just reward for the risks they had taken during the conquest. They saw the New Laws as the actions of an ungrateful king who, after all, had been sent 20% of Atahualpa's ransom. Reading them today, the New Laws do not seem radical - they provide for basic human rights such as the right to be paid for work and the right to not be unreasonably taxed. The fact that the settlers rebelled, fought and died to fight the New Laws only shows how deeply they had sunk into greed and cruelty.
Burkholder, Mark and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Inca London: Pan Books, 2004 (original 1970).
Herring, Hubert. A History of Latin America From the Beginnings to the Present.. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962
Patterson, Thomas C. The Inca Empire: The Formation and Disintegration of a Pre-Capitalist State.New York: Berg Publishers, 1991.