The Queen Anne's Revenge:
The Queen Anne's Revenge was a massive pirate ship commanded by Edward "Blackbeard" Teach
in 1717-18. It was one of the most formidable pirate ships ever, carrying 40 cannons and enough room for plenty of men and loot. It sank in 1718, and many believe that Blackbeard scuttled it on purpose. The wreck has been found and has turned up a treasure trove of pirate artifacts.
From Concorde to Queen Anne's Revenge:
On November 17, 1717, Blackbeard captured la Concorde
, a French slaving vessel. He realized that it would make a perfect pirate ship
: it was large yet fast and big enough to mount 40 cannons on board. He renamed it Queen Anne's Revenge
: the name referred to Anne, Queen of England and Scotland (1665-1714). Many pirates, including Blackbeard, were Jacobites: this meant that they favored the return of the throne of Great Britain from the House of Hanover to the House of Stuart: it had changed hands after Anne's death.
The Ultimate Pirate Ship:
For several months, Blackbeard used the Queen Anne's Revenge to effectively terrorize shipping in the Atlantic. Between the massive frigate and his own fearsome appearance and reputation, Blackbeard's victims rarely put up a fight and handed over their cargoes peacefully. He plundered the shipping lanes at will. He was even able to blockade the port of Charleston
for a week in April of 1718, looting several ships: the town gave him a valuable chest full of medicines to make him go away.
The Queen Anne's Revenge Sinks:
In June of 1718, the Queen Anne's Revenge hit a sandbar off of North Carolina and had to be abandoned. Blackbeard took the opportunity to make off with all of the loot and a select few of his favorite pirates, leaving the others (including hapless pirate Stede Bonnet
) to fend for themselves. Because Blackbeard went legit (sort of) for a little while after that, many thought he scuttled his flagship on purpose. Within a few months, Blackbeard would return to piracy and on November 22, 1718 he was killed by pirate hunters in a pitched battle off of North Carolina
The Wreck of the Queen Anne’s Revenge:
In 1996, a shipwreck believed to be that of the Queen Anne's Revenge was discovered off of North Carolina. For 15 years it was excavated and studied, and in 2011 it was confirmed to be Blackbeard's ship. The shipwreck has yielded many interesting artifacts, including weapons, cannons, medical gear and a massive anchor. Many of the artifacts are on display at North Carolina's Maritime museum and can be viewed by the public: the opening of the exhibit drew record crowds in June, a testament to Blackbeard's lasting reputation and popularity.
Cordingly, David. Under the Black Flag New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 1996
Defoe, Daniel (Captain Charles Johnson). A General History of the Pyrates. Edited by Manuel Schonhorn. Mineola: Dover Publications, 1972/1999.
Konstam, Angus. The World Atlas of Pirates. Guilford: the Lyons Press, 2009
Konstam, Angus. The Pirate Ship 1660-1730. New York: Osprey, 2003.